Between the High Atlas Mountains and and the Anti-Atlas Mountains lie fortified walled cities and towns, kasbahs. Jews lived in or near each of them, typically in mellahs. They lived among Amazigh and Haratines, descendants of black slaves originating from South of the Sahara.
Some of the most important Jewish communities, from West to East, were in Taroudant, Talouine, Taznakht, Ouarzazate, Kalat Mgouna, Boulmane Dades, Tinghir, and Errachidia. Other Jewish oases communities were found in the Draa Valley southeast of Ouarzazate and the Ziz Valley south of Errachidia.